In diagnosing the post-fallen human condition, the Church Fathers recognized that the natural order of the soul had become disordered. As a result of the Fall, the lower aspects of the soul (the discursive faculty, the desiring faculty and the aggressive faculty) have become so dominant that they reduced the faculty of the Nous to such obscurity. The soul was defined exclusively by these three lower faculties and known as the tripartite soul.
In the present state of affairs, the Nous, highest faculty of the soul, through which the soul has communion with God, has been weakened to the point that our reason alone often does not have the strength to exert impulse control over sensual desires or angry reactions. Reason is no longer reasonable; desire no longer seeks what is truly good; and zeal is in the service of things not worth fighting over. The lower aspect of the soul is now the master. It has taken over the human being that is now carried away by illusive thoughts, vain imaginings, unbridled emotions and bodily concerns. The soul of fallen man has come under the illusion of self-sufficiency. Therefore, it is not satisfied with concerning itself with temporal needs (food, clothing and shelter), but seeks also to dominate nature and others as well as to find new sources of sensual enjoyment. In fact, we begin to view self-expansion and pleasures in their extreme form as inalienable rights. Such a soul has become what is today called an Ego.
On the one hand, our spirit (or Nous) in communion with God is our real self, the true seat of our personhood. On the other hand, the Ego, i.e. the sum of a human being disconnected from God, is our false self, an illusory self-sufficient entity. Because the Ego thinks to achieve its ends and overcome its obstacles through its own unaided powers, it can also be called our false “problem solver”; false, because man was made to cooperate with God, not to be cut off from Him; false, because the Ego solves problems that are not really problems and fails to face the one problem that truly needs solving. This false sense of autonomy leads the Ego to do everything in its power, consciously, subconsciously and unconsciously, to silence the spirit that seeks a relationship with God in humility and dependence upon His providence.
The Nous is weakened, but still present in man. It is awakened in the presence of anything holy and of God’s compassionate, forgiving love. Although dominated by the lower faculties of the soul, the Nous can place its hope in the all-powerful grace of God. The Nous is strengthened through prayer, through constantly crying out to God and by commitment to ascetic labor that turns every aspect of the believer’s life in the direction of God, rather than the direction of foolish anger, unworthy desires and vain reasoning. Gradually through the purifying acts of humility, prayer, vigils, the humble and honest confession of sins, and the frequent reception of the Holy Communion, the soul is healed. The disorder of the Fall is rectified with the harmony of paradise known by the soul that places God before all else.
Ascetical labor must be a determined and persistent effort, because the world in which we live constantly bombards us with slick marketing ploys exalting the lower faculties of the soul. One need only turn on the television, read a magazine, view a few billboards to see examples of this. Perhaps the first correct step in attempting Askesis (spiritual discipline) is a commitment to read good books, limit television use and maintain some period of silence every day. This naturally must be supplemented by attending church Services and the reception of sacraments. Our secular age makes this increasingly difficult. A good spiritual director and the companionship of like-minded fellow travelers will also prove to be helpful. We do have the example of holy men and women who have trodden this path on earth.
In the New Testament, there is an epistle by St. James, addressed to all Christians. It contains all teaching of the apostle in brief. Though it is short, it demonstrates the capacity of his heart.
The epistle begins with an exhortation that shows the depth of experience he has in the struggle for salvation. It is an appeal that may sound strange to us nowadays, as our main concern seems to seek comfort and pleasure. It suits us to often find excuses as to avoid starting on the serious task of attending to our spiritual wellbeing of our souls.
St. James emphasizes: “Whenever you face trials of any kind, consider it nothing but joy, because you know that the testing of your faith produces endurance; and let endurance have its full effect” [James 2-4]. In other words, the holy apostle is saying: Accept the trials that God allows to befall you as blessings. Not as a curse. We grow through adversity, not pleasure. Just as our bodies from infancy on grow by being exposed to viruses, attacks and various hardships, so our souls grow through adversity.
Gratitude is the quality of being thankful; the readiness to show appreciation for and to return kindness. There are proven benefits to expressing gratitude:
1. Opens the door to more relationships
2. Improves physical health
3. Improves psychological health
4. Enhances empathy and reduces aggression
5. Improves sleep
6. Improves self-esteem
7. Increases mental strength
Gratitude can be expressed in many different ways and can be applied to the past, the present and the future. Gratitude helps us to refocus on what we have instead of what we lack. It grows stronger with use and practice. Here are a few ways to practice expressing gratitude regularly:
· Thank someone mentally and/or verbally
· Write a thank-you note
· Keep a gratitude journal or list of things you are thankful for · Count your blessings
When asked, “Who are the best people?” the prophet Muhammad said: “Those who are cheerful, when they do good; who are repentant, when they do wrong; who are grateful, when they receive; who show patience, when in difficulty; and pardon, when they are angered.”
In the person of St. Mary the transition from the Old to the New Testament is already complete. She is in the temple and will soon herself become the temple of the Son and Word of God, Jesus. She is a more holy temple than the one in Jerusalem and the greatest of all temples, that is, she is what all of us have as our objective to become, given the premises created by the resurrection and by the descent of the Holy Spirit.